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Main » 2011 » August » 8 » Srimad Bhagavad Gita..... Capter XVIII
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Srimad Bhagavad Gita..... Capter XVIII
Liberation Through Renunciation Arjuna said: 1. O mighty-armed One, famed as the destroyer of Keshin and the conqueror of the senses! I desire to know the true nature of Samnyasa, and as distinguished from it, of Tyaga too. The Blessed Lord said: 2. Abandonment of all desire-prompted actions is Samnyasa (renunciation) according to the wise. Men of discernment speak of the abandonment of the fruits of all actions as Tyaga (relinquishment). 3. Some wise men say that all action is to be abandoned as evil. Others maintain that good works like worship, charity and practice of austerity are not to be abandoned. 4. O the best of the Bharata race! Hear my conclusive view on this subject of Tyaga (relinquishment). It is said that there are three types of Tyaga. 5. Works like sacrifice, charity and austerity should not be abandoned. They should be performed; for sacrifice, charity and austerity are indeed purifying for the wise. 6. O Son of Pritha! Even these works are to be performed without attachment and desire for their fruits. This is My settled and decisive view. 7. It is not at all proper to renounce works that ought to be done as duty. Their abandonment out of delusion is considered to be of the nature of Tamas. 8. Those who give up work out of a dread of physical suffering, out of a feeling that it is painful, they, performing relinquishment of a Rajasa nature, do not obtain the results of true relinquishment. 9. But, O Arjuna! That relinquishment is considered as Sattvika which consists in giving up attachment and thoughts of returns in respect of works, and which is done with the feeling that it is an obligatory duty that must necessarily be performed. 10. The relinquisher (Tyagi), if he is endowed with the qualities of Sattva, wisdom and conviction in regard to the spiritual ideal, never avoids duties merely because they are unpleasant, nor does he get attached to works that seem pleasant to him. 11. It is not indeed possible for any embodied being (i.e., one with body-consciousness) to abandon works in entirety. So all that one can do is to abandon the fruits of action. One doing so is called a Tyagi (a relinquisher). 12. Regarding those who have not relinquished their desires (atyaginam), they reap after death the fruits of their actions performed with desire. They are of three sorts -'unpleasant' like degradation into animal life or stay in purgatory for the very wicked; 'pleasant' like attainment of heavenly felicities for the virtuous; and mixed' as in human birth, for those who have Karmas of both these types to their credit. But Samnyasins (true renouncers) will have none of these. 13. Learn from me, O mighty armed! about the five causal factors required for all actions as described in the Samkhya, the philosophy of spiritual illumination, which is the ultimate purpose of all actions. 14. One's body which is the seat of action, the ego claiming to be the actor, the several instruments of actions (like the senses, the mind etc.), the varied and the distinct types of movements involved, and finally the unknown factor (or the deities presiding over the senses) as the fifth - these are the five causal factors. 15. These are the five causal factors involved in all actions, good as also bad, which men undertake with this body, speech and mind. 16. That being so, he whose imperfect understanding makes him think that the self alone (or the unlimited and unrelated Atman) is the agent involved in work - he verily sees not, being perverted in outlook. 17. He who is ever established in the feeling 'I am not the agent' and whose mind is consequently unsullied by attachments - he kills not really, nor is he bound, even though he annihilates all these beings. 18. Knowledge, object of knowledge, and knower - these constitute the threefold incitement to action. And the three constituents of action are the instruments of action, the purpose of action, and the agent. 19. In the philosophy dealing with the Gunas and their evolutes, knowledge, action and agent are each divided into three according to the preponderance of each Guna in them. Hear of them also as they are. 20. That knowledge by which one is able to see a unitary unmodifiable Essence, undivided among the divided, - know that knowledge to be of the nature of Sattva. 21. That knowledge which apprehends all beings as a multiplicity with mutual distinction and in their separateness only, without any apprehension of an underlying unity - know that knowledge to be born of Rajas. 22. That by which one dogmatically holds on to a part as if it were the whole (or looks on the body, an effect, as the whole man) - a view which is irrational, untrue and silly - that knowledge is said to be born of Tamas. 23. Work of the nature of duty done by one without hankering for fruits, and without attachment, or passion or hate - such work is spoken of as born of Sattva. 24. But work that is done by a person merely for the gratification of his desire, and with great strain and a feeling of self-importance is said to be born of Rajas. 25. And that work which is performed under delusion, without any regard to consequences, loss, injury to others, and to one's own capacity - is said to be bom of Tamas. 26. A 'doer' (an agent of an action) who is without any attachment and sense of pride and self-importance, who is endowed with steadiness and zeal, and who is unruffled in success and failure - such a doer is said to be of the nature of Sattva. 27. A 'doer' who is swayed by passion, who is keen on the fruits of his actions, who is covetous, cruel and impure at heart, and who is subject to elation and depression in success and failure - such a doer is said to be of the nature of Rajas. 28. And a 'doer' who is unsteady, vulgar, arrogant, deceitful, malicious, indolent, despondent, and procrastinating - such a doer is said to be of the nature of Tamas. 29. Hear now, O Arjuna, of the threefold division of the intellect and of the power of determination on the basis of their constituent Gunas - hear of them severally and in their totality. 30. O son of Pritha! That intellect is said to be of the nature of Sattva which grasps the distinction between worldliness and renunciation, between the moral and the immoral, between what should be feared and what should not be, and between knowledge and freedom. 31. O son of Pritha! That intellect is said to be of the nature of Rajas, which takes a distorted and confused view of the moral and the immoral, of what should be done and what should not be. 32. O son of Pritha! That intellect is of the nature of Tamas, which, covered by the darkness of ignorance, understands the immoral as the moral and thus reverses all. values. 33. O Son of Pritha! That power of determination is of the nature of Sattva, by which the mind, the vital energy and the senses are held in control through unswerving concentration. 34. That power of determination is of the nature of Rajas, by which one holds on to duty, pleasure and wealth with passionate attachment, motivated by the desire for their fruits. 35. That power of determination is of the nature of Tamas, due to which one of perverted intelligence does not give up sloth, fear, grief, despondency and frenzy of sense indulgences. 36-37. Hear from Me now about the three kinds of pleasures, O the greatest of the Bharata clan! That pleasure is said to be of the nature of Sattva which is gained by long practice of disciplines, which puts an end to all sorrows that man is heir to, which is like poison in the beginning but nectar-like at the end, and which springs from the serenity arising from the consciousness of the Atman. 38. That pleasure is declared to be of the nature of Rajas, which is born of the union of the senses with their objects, which seems nectar-like in the beginning but turns to be poison in the end. 39. That pleasure is of the nature of Tamas, which springs from sleepiness, sloth and heedlessness, and which is delusive in its effect on the spirit from beginning to end. 40. Nowhere, be it in this world or in the heavenly regions of the Devas, is there any being who is free from these three Gunas of Nature (Prakriti). 41. O great hero! The duties of Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and also of Shudras have been divided according to the qualities born of their own nature. 42. Serenity, control of the senses, austerity, purity, straight-forwardness, knowledge, insight, and faith in the Supreme Being - these are a Brahmana's duties born of his own nature. 43. Prowess, splendour of personality, unfailing courage, resourcefulness, dauntlessness in battle, generosity, leadership - these are a Kshatriya's duties born of his own nature. 44. Agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade form the duty of the Vaishya springing from his own nature, while the natural duty of a Shudra consists in subordinate service under others. 45. By being devoted to one's own natural duty, man attains to spiritual competency. Now hear how devotion to one's own natural duty generates spiritual competency. 46. From whom all beings have emanated and by whom all this universe is pervaded -by worshipping Him through the dedicated performance of one's duty, man attains to spiritual competency (Siddhi). 47. One's own duty, even if without excellence (i.e. inferior) in the scale of worldly values, is more meritorious spiritually than the apparently well-performed duty of another. For, no sin is incurred by one doing works ordained according to one's nature (that is, in consonance with one's own natural evolution). 48. O son of Kunti! Do not abandon the duty that is natural to you, even if some imperfections are incidental to it. For there is no undertaking without some imperfections, even as there is no fire without a covering of smoke. 49. Completely non-attached, self-subdued, and desireless, an aspirant attains the supreme perfection of transcendence of work through renunciation. 50. Now hear from Me in brief how one, who is established in the perfection of transcendence of work, attains to Brahman, the highest consummation of knowledge. 51-53. Endowed with a purified intellect, established in self-control, abandoning the life of the senses as also attachments and antagonisms; frequenting solitary places, reducing food to the minimum; having speech, body and mind under control; ever meditative; endued with dispassion; abandoning conceit, violence, lust, anger and possessiveness; selfless and tranquil, he becomes fit for beatification in Brahman-consciousness (Atman-consciousness). 54. Brahma-become (established in Atman-Consciousness), tranquil in spirit, free from grief and passions, and regarding all beings alike, he gains supreme devotion to Me. 55. By devotion does he come to know Me - both my extent and My essence. Knowing Me thus in truth and in reality, he enters into Me at once. 56. Though performing every kind of work always, he who has taken refuge in Me shall, by My grace, attain to the eternal and indestructible state of Moksha (spiritual liberation). 57. Mentally resigning all actions to Me (in respect of their fruits and agency), devoting yourself intensely to Me, and ever practising the communion of intellectual love, be you ever established in the thought of Me. 58. If you are thus ever in communion with Me in mind, you will overcome every obstacle. But if, out of self-conceit, you do not listen to Me, destruction will be your fate. 59. Vain is your resolve not to fight, born as it is of self-conceit. Nature will compel you. 60. O son of Kunti! Duties which your natural tendencies have imposed upon you, but which out of delusion you refuse to do, even that you will have to perform by the compulsion of Nature. 61. O Arjuna! The Lord dwells in the heart of all beings revolving them all by His mysterious Power Maya, as if they were objects mounted on a machine. 62. O scion of Bharata's clan! Seek refuge in Him, making a total surrender of your being -body, mind and soul. By His grace you shall attain to supreme peace and the everlasting abode. 63. Thus have I imparted to you wisdom which is more secret (profound) than all that is secret (profound). Reflecting over this whole teaching, do as you think fit. 64. Listen again to My supreme word, the profoundest of all spiritual teachings. You are well beloved of Me; and so I shall tell you what is beneficial to you; 65. Let your mind be engrossed in Me. Offer worship to Me. Be resigned to Me. Beloved as you are of me, I pledge in truth you shall come to Me alone. 66. Abandoning (after sincere trial) dependence on all Dharmas (or human efforts at moral and spiritual upliftment),come to Me as the only Refuge. Grieve not; I will deliver you from all sins. 67. This should on no account be imparted to those who do not practise austere living, who have no devotion to Me, who cavil at Me, and are devoid of the discipline of service. 68. He who teaches this supremely profound doctrine among men devoted to Me, having thereby offered to Me the highest form of loving service, shall undoubtedly come to Me alone. 69. No man can do anything more pleasing to Me than he, and nor shall any one on earth be dearer to Me than he. 70. It is My view that he who studies this conversation between us should be regarded as adoring Me with a sacrifice of knowledge. 71. Even a man who listens to this holy conversation between us with deep faith and receptivity shall attain to liberation and the happy regions open to righteous men. 72. Has this teaching been heard by you, O Arjuna, with a concentrated mind? Has all delusion born of ignorance been dispelled from you, O Dhananjaya? Arjuna said: 73. My delusion has been dispelled and my memory restored by Thy grace, O Undecaying Lord! I now stand firm, with all my doubts cleared, ready to execute Thy command. Sanjaya said: 74. Thus have I heard, with my hair standing on end, this wonderful conversation between Krishna and the high-souled son of Pritha. 75. Thus did I, by Vyasa's grace, directly hear Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, Himself teaching this Yoga, profound and supreme. 76. Again and again, O king, does the memory of that sacred and astounding dialogue between Keshava and Arjuna come to my mind, causing no end of joy. 77. Again and again does that most wondrous form of Hari arise in my mind, generating great astonishment and endless thrills of joy. 78. Wherever there is Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, accompanied by Arjuna wielding the bow -there reign good fortune, victory, prosperity and sound policy. Such is my conviction.
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